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Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal , and has kept some Celtic phonology and lexicon.
The language was spread by Roman soldiers, settlers, and merchants, who built Roman cities mostly near the settlements of previous Celtic or Celtiberian civilizations established long before the Roman arrivals.
For that reason, the language has kept a relevant substratum of much older, Atlantic European Megalithic Culture  and Celtic culture .
The occupiers, mainly Suebi   , Visigoths and Buri  who originally spoke Germanic languages , quickly adopted late Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula and over the next years totally integrated into the local populations.
After the Moorish invasion beginning in , Arabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of Romance commonly known as Mozarabic , which lasted three centuries longer in Spain.
Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese , Old Portuguese or Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia and County of Portugal.
It is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period from the 12th to the 14th century , the language was increasingly used for documents and other written forms.
For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania , much as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France.
The Occitan digraphs lh and nh , used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese , presumably by Gerald of Braga ,  a monk from Moissac , who became bishop of Braga in Portugal in , playing a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms.
Portugal became an independent kingdom in , under King Afonso I of Portugal. In , King Denis of Portugal created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon the Estudos Gerais , which later moved to Coimbra and decreed for Portuguese, then simply called the "common language", to be known as the Portuguese language and used officially.
In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries , the language was taken to many regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
By the midth century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities.
The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India , Sri Lanka , Malaysia , and Indonesia preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal.
The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende , in The early times of Modern Portuguese, which spans the period from the 16th century to the present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of learned words borrowed from Classical Latin and Classical Greek because of the Renaissance learned words borrowed from Latin also came from Renaissance Latin , the form of Latin during that time , which greatly enriched the lexicon.
Portuguese is the native language of the vast majority of people in Brazil  and Portugal,  and There are also significant Portuguese-speaking immigrant communities in many countries including Andorra In some parts of former Portuguese India , namely Goa  and Daman and Diu ,  the language is still spoken by about 10, people.
In , an estimated 1, students were learning Portuguese in Goa. Equatorial Guinea made a formal application for full membership to the CPLP in June , a status given only to states with Portuguese as an official language.
According to The World Factbook country population estimates for , the population of each of the ten jurisdictions is as follows by descending order:.
The combined population of the entire Lusophone area was estimated at million in July This number does not include the Lusophone diaspora , estimated at approximately 10 million people including 4.
Additionally, a large part of the diaspora is a part of the already-counted population of the Portuguese-speaking countries and territories, such as the high number of Brazilian and PALOP emigrant citizens in Portugal or the high number of Portuguese emigrant citizens in the PALOP and Brazil.
The Portuguese language therefore serves more than million people daily, who have direct or indirect legal, juridical and social contact with it, varying from the only language used in any contact, to only education, contact with local or international administration, commerce and services or the simple sight of road signs, public information and advertising in Portuguese.
Portuguese is a mandatory subject in the school curriculum in Uruguay. Since , when Brazil signed into the economic community of Mercosul with other South American nations, namely Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, Portuguese is either mandatory, or taught, in the schools of those South American countries.
Although early in the 21st century, after Macau was returned to China and Brazilian immigration to Japan slowed down, the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia, it is once again becoming a language of opportunity there, mostly because of increased diplomatic and financial ties with economically powerful Portuguese-speaking countries Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, etc.
Riograndense and European Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech by verbal conjugation. Conjugation of tu has three different forms in Brazil verb "to see": Standard European Portuguese is also the preferred standard by the Portuguese-speaking African countries.
As such, and despite the fact that its speakers are dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only two dialects used for learning: Some aspects and sounds found in many dialects of Brazil are exclusive to South America, and cannot be found in Europe.
However, the Santomean Portuguese in Africa may be confused with a Brazilian dialect by its phonology and prosody.
Audio samples of some dialects and accents of Portuguese are available below. IPA transcriptions refer to the names in local pronunciation.
Differences between dialects are mostly of accent and vocabulary , but between the Brazilian dialects and other dialects, especially in their most colloquial forms, there can also be some grammatical differences.
The Portuguese-based creoles spoken in various parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas are independent languages. Portuguese, like Catalan , preserved the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin , which became diphthongs in most other Romance languages; cf.
Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of intervocalic l and n , sometimes followed by the merger of the two surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel between them: When the elided consonant was n , it often nasalized the preceding vowel: The Portuguese language is the only Romance language that has preserved the clitic case mesoclisis: Like Galician , it also retains the Latin synthetic pluperfect tense: Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived, directly or through other Romance languages, from Latin.
Nevertheless, because of its original Lusitanian and Celtic Gallaecian heritage, and the later participation of Portugal in the Age of Discovery , it has some words from pre-Latin Paleohispanic languages and adopted loanwords from other languages around the world.
A number of Portuguese words can still be traced to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Portugal , which included the Gallaeci , Lusitanians , Celtici and Cynetes.
Most of these words derived from the Hispano-Celtic Gallaecian language of northwestern Iberia, and are very often shared with Galician since both languages share a common origin in the medieval language of Galician-Portuguese.
A few of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other Celtic sources, often Gaulish. Altogether these are over 1, words, some verbs and toponymic names of towns, rivers, utensils and plants.
As they adopted the Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed with some Germanic words to the lexicon. The Germanic languages influence also exists in toponymic surnames and patronymic surnames borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their descendants, and it dwells on placenames such has Ermesinde , Esposende and Resende where sinde and sende are derived from the Germanic "sinths" military expedition and in the case of Resende, the prefix re comes from Germanic "reths" council.
Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired some to words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages.
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade , and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories.
While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages, especially French and English.
These are by far the most important languages when referring to loanwords. There are many examples such as: Examples from other European languages: Many Portuguese settlers to Colonial Brazil were from northern and insular Portugal,  apart from some historically important illegal immigrants from elsewhere in Europe, such as Galicia, France and the Netherlands.
Between and , , Europeans overwhelmingly Portuguese settled in Brazil, while , Europeans settled in the United States for the same given time.
Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages , and it has special ties with the following members of this group:.
Portuguese and other Romance languages namely French and Italian are moderately mutually intelligible, and share considerable similarities in both vocabulary and grammar.
Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those Romance languages, and vice versa.
However, Portuguese and Galician are mutually intelligible , and Spanish is highly asymmetrically comprehensible to Portuguese speakers.
Portunhol , a form of code-switching , has a more lively use and is more readily mentioned in popular culture in South America.
Said code-switching is not to be confused with the portunhol spoken on the borders of Brazil with Uruguay dialeto do pampa and Paraguay dialeto dos brasiguaios , and of Portugal with Spain barranquenho , that are Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people, which have been heavily influenced by Spanish.
There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena including informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and their usage.
The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the autonomous community region and historical nationality of Galicia northwestern Spain.
The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese , but they have diverged especially in pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of Portugal from Galicia.
It is "considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that ranged from Cantabria to Mondego [ In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect.
Many linguists consider Galician to be a co-dialect of the Portuguese language. It is called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers.
It should be noticed that the diversity of dialects of the Portuguese language is known since the time of medieval Portuguese-Galician language when it coexisted with the Lusitanian-Mozarabic dialect, spoken in the south of Portugal.
Of local dialects he highlights five main dialects: He also makes reference to the overseas dialects, the rustic dialects, the poetic dialect and that of prose.
Dinis decided to call it "Portuguese language",  the erudite version used and known as Galician-Portuguese the language of the Portuguese court and all other Portuguese dialects were spoken at the same time.
In a historical perspective the Portuguese language was never just one dialect. Just like today there is a standard Portuguese actually two among the several dialects of Portuguese, in the past there was Galician-Portuguese as the "standard", coexisting with other dialects.
In nearby Larantuka , Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Japanese—Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan.
Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum Annamite—Portuguese—Latin dictionary of Alexandre de Rhodes introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese , which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese.
The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language among others , particularly regarding Chinese surnames ; one example is Mei.
For instance, as Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them.
Neapolitan , an orange is portogallo or purtuallo , literally " the Portuguese one ", in contrast to standard Italian arancia.
Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence.
As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages , which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century.
Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry.
Some would describe the phonology of Portuguese as a blend of Spanish , Gallo-Romance e. French and the languages of northern Italy especially Genoese , but with a deeper Celtic influence.
There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels, 2 semivowels and 21 consonants; though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes. There are also five nasal vowels , which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels.
Like Catalan and German , Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables. Unstressed isolated vowels tend to be raised and sometimes centralized.
A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb. Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language.
Portuguese and Spanish share very similar grammar. Portuguese also has some grammatical innovations not found in other Romance languages except Galician and Fala:.
Portuguese is written with 26 letters of the Latin script , making use of five diacritics to denote stress, vowel height, contraction, nasalization, and etymological assibilation acute accent , circumflex , grave accent , tilde , and cedilla.
They defended themselves bravely for years, causing the Roman invaders serious defeats. Three years later B. Viriathus was betrayed and killed in his sleep by his companions who had been sent as emissaries to the Romans , Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus , bribed by Marcus Popillius Laenas.
However, when Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus returned to receive their reward by the Romans, the Consul Servilius Caepio ordered their execution, declaring, "Rome does not pay traitors".
The Lusitanian cities, in a manner similar to those of the rest of the Roman-Iberian peninsula, eventually gained the status of "Citizens of Rome".
The Portuguese language itself is a local later evolution of the Roman language, Latin after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries.
Modern Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group and share a similar makeup to that of the fellow Southern Europeans.
As a result, the Portuguese were introduced to new cultures and ethnicities. Regarding this, it is comprehensible that any relationship between citizenship and anthropometrical features can be questioned, nevertheless, it is possible to draw the general anthropometrical features of the majority of the Portuguese population.
Dark to medium brown hair and brown and hazel eyes are predominant. However, light brown and blond hair and blue and green eyes are also found frequently.
Chestnut and auburn-colored hair types occur generally. Legitimate black hair—not espresso brown—can be found, but it is not very common.
Light, true red hair meaning red shades that are non-auburn is seen on occasion. However, there are higher percentages of individuals with auburn and dark red-brown shades.
Dark and light sandy hair is common. A recent study by Candille et al. In terms of hair color, the Portuguese averaged lighter hair than Italians and darker than Irish and Poles.
The Portuguese exhibited significantly lower frequencies in lighter eye shades in comparison to the Irish and Polish, and marginally less, compared to Italians.
There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a total population of A small minority of about 15, speak the Mirandese language , part of the Asturian-Leonese linguistic group which includes the Asturian and Leonese minority languages of Northwestern Spain     in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro , Vimioso and Mogadouro.
All of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2, people speak Barranquenho , a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran , spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos in the border between Extremadura and Andalusia , in Spain , and Portugal.
More recently, a great number of Slavs , especially Ukrainians now the third biggest ethnic minority  and Russians , as well as Moldovans and Romanians , keep migrating to Portugal.
There is also a Chinese minority, which are mainly of Macau Cantonese origin. In addition, there is a small minority of Gypsies Ciganos about 40, in number,  Muslims about 34, in number  and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5, people the majority are Sephardi such as the Belmonte Jews , while some are Ashkenazi.
In the whole world there are easily more than one hundred million people with recognizable Portuguese ancestors, due to the colonial expansion and worldwide immigration of Portuguese from the 16th century onwards to India , the Americas , Macau see Macanese people , East-Timor , Malaysia , Indonesia and Africa.
Between and , Portugal lost to emigration more than any West European country except Ireland. In Brazil many of the colonists were also originally Sephardi Jews, who, converted, were known as New Christians.
Springfield, Illinois once possessed the largest Portuguese Community in the Midwest. Canada , particularly Ontario , Quebec and British Columbia , has developed a significant Portuguese community since see Portuguese Canadians.
Portuguese fishermen, farmers and laborers dispersed across the Caribbean , especially Bermuda 3. Vincent and the Grenadines , and the island of Barbados where there is high influence from the Portuguese community.
In the early twentieth century the Portuguese government encouraged white emigration to Angola and Mozambique , and by the s, there were up to 1 million Portuguese settlers living in their overseas African provinces.
In there were estimates to be over half a million people of Portuguese origin in the United Kingdom see Portuguese in the United Kingdom —this is considerably larger than the around 88, Portuguese-born people alone residing in the country in estimation; however this figure does not include British-born people of Portuguese descent.
The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea , Lambeth and Westminster.
In colonial times , over , Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century.
Between and , about , Europeans immigrated to Brazil, compared to , European immigrants in the United States. The Portuguese migration was strongly marked by the predominance of men colonial reports from the 16th and 17th centuries almost always report the absence or rarity of Portuguese women.
This lack of women worried the Jesuits, who asked the Portuguese King to send any kind of Portuguese women to Brazil, even the socially undesirable e.
Some of which were even primarily studying to be nuns. In fact, in colonial Brazil the Portuguese men competed for the women, because among the African slaves the female component was also a small minority.
The Indian and African women were "dominated" by the Portuguese men, preventing men of color to find partners with whom they could have children.
Added to this, White people had a much better quality of life and therefore a lower mortality rate than the black and indigenous population.
Then, even though the Portuguese migration during colonial Brazil was smaller 3. The immigrants opted mostly for urban centers. Portuguese women appeared with some regularity among immigrants, with percentage variation in different decades and regions of the country.
However, even among the more recent influx of Portuguese immigrants at the turn of the 20th century, there were men to each women among them.
Despite the small female proportion, Portuguese men married mainly Portuguese women. Female immigrants rarely married Brazilian men.
In this context, the Portuguese had a rate of endogamy which was higher than any other European immigrant community, and behind only the Japanese among all immigrants.
Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a dominant cultural influence in the formation of Brazil like many British Americans in the United States , who will never describe themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans".
In , there were 3. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of immigrants from Portugal arrived. From to , over 1. Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese genetic influence in Brazilians.
An autosomal study from , with nearly samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a predominant degree of European ancestry mostly Portuguese, due to the dominant Portuguese influx among European colonization and immigration to Brazil combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees.
The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution.
Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. It was estimated that around 25 million or more Brazilians can acquire Portuguese citizenship, due to the last Portuguese nationality law that grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.
The later is a unique Portuguese marker - the Portuguese have neither a significant contribution to their genetic pool from paleo-North Africans AB18 nor Mediterraneans AB As such, they may have remained in relative genetic isolation compared to the rest of the Iberian populations.
The later is also common in Irish , southern English , and western French populations. The Portuguese cluster with the Basques, and these with the Spaniards and the Algerians , as data suggest that there is a common Iberian and paleo-North African origin according to some studies, showing a pre-neolithic Saharan northwards migration and admixture with ancient Iberians.
R1b-5 gene cluster is a male re-expansion 15,, years ago from Northwestern Iberia heading towards Ireland , Wales and Northern Scotland. The Rory gene cluster R1b is one of the largest re-expansions also head towards Ireland and Scotland, however featuring particularly in Irish men with Gaelic names.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about ethnic Portuguese people. For the ethnic make-up of people in Portugal, see Demographics of Portugal.
Genetic history of Europe. Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula. Not to be confused with Lusatia. Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 24 August Portugal has 10 million nationals. The 40 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese including grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.
Retrieved 28 April A wise man, a sad princess and a Scot crazy for money helped Dom Pedro create Brazil - a country that had everything to go wrong ] in Portuguese.
Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 11 January Archived from the original XLS on 26 July Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 22 July Bericht [ Foreigners in Switzerland: Report ] PDF in German.
Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Archived from the original PDF on 2 August